Writing skills are fundamental for primary and secondary Education, preparing children to express themselves and transmit information to other people. With such skills, individuals get ready for the workforce and for adulthood socialisation. However, the skilful writing needs from the student to know how to write their ideas, opinions and stories, requiring the understanding of the four types of text.
The four main types of text are descriptive, analytical, persuasive and critical. Each of these types of writing has specific language features and purposes.
Descriptive: The purpose of descriptive writing is to let the reader imagine a character, an event, a location, or all of these things at once in great detail. The author might use all five senses to describe the scene. Expository writing limits the writer's aesthetic flexibility, but descriptive writing does not. Examples include fiction, poetry, advertising, journals and diary writings.
Expository: Because the word expository includes the word expose, it is a good descriptor for this form of writing because it exposes, or sets forth, facts. It's arguably the most prevalent type of writing you'll come across throughout your day. A topic will be introduced and laid out in a logical manner in an expository piece, with no reference to the author's personal ideas. Examples include textbooks, Journalism materials (except for opinion and editorial articles), business writing, technical writing, essays and instructions.
Narrative: The goal of narrative writing is to tell a tale, whether it's a true story or a made-up one. Characters will appear in narrative pieces, and the reader will learn what happens to them through the narrative. Dialogue can be included in narrative writing.
Persuasive: The goal of persuasive writing, also known as argumentation, is to persuade the reader to adopt the author's viewpoint. In the work, the author will express personal beliefs and provide evidence to persuade the reader to agree with him or her. Examples include advertising, opinion and editorial pieces, reviews and job applications.
A great video which summarises these four types of text is the one below, watch it!
This is the very beginning of the understanding about types of text, which can be expanded into much more subtypes and ways to use. However, without knowing the purpose and basic principles of each of these four types of text, students will face many challenges throughout their school years.